Appendices for Resources
Appendix A : Prevention Information
Primary Prevention & the Socio-Ecological Model
Primary Prevention focuses on preventing disease or injury before it occurs. This is done by preventing exposures to disease or injury, altering unhealthy or unsafe behaviors that can lead to disease or injury, and increasing resistance to disease or injury should a potential exposure occur. In the context of this guide, we are focusing on the primary prevention of child sexual abuse. Preventing sexual abuse before it occurs.
The Socio-Ecological Model is a public health approach that addresses individual risk and protective factors, and the norms, beliefs, and social and economic systems that create the conditions for the occurrence of child sexual abuse and exploitation. The social-ecological model provides a framework for understanding the complex interaction of individual, relationship, community, and society. This model considers the complex interplay between individual, relationship, community, and societal factors. It allows us to understand the range of factors that put people at risk for violence or protect them from experiencing or perpetrating violence. The overlapping rings in the model illustrate how factors at one level influence factors at another level. (The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Prevention, 2022)
Besides helping to clarify these factors, the model also suggests that in order to prevent violence, it is necessary to act across multiple levels of the model at the same time. This approach is more likely to sustain prevention efforts over time and achieve population-level impact. (The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Prevention, 2022)
Appendix B: Mandated Reporting
Every state has laws to provide specific mandates for certain professional groups to report any suspected child abuse and neglect to child protection, police, or other authorities.
North Dakota Law requires that certain professionals must report suspected child abuse or neglect, these individuals are mandated reporters. In North Dakota, mandated reporters include physicians, nurses, dentists, optometrists, dental hygienists, medical examiners, or coroners, any other medical or mental health professionals, religious practitioners of the healing arts, teachers, administrators, and counselors, addiction counselors, social workers, childcare professionals, foster parents, police or law enforcement officers, juvenile court personnel, probation officers, and juvenile services employees. However, anyone who suspects child abuse and neglect may make a report. It’s a Class B misdemeanor when a mandated reporter chooses not to report suspected abuse.
All employees, and volunteers should become familiar with and receive regular training on their organization/school’s reporting policy so there is no doubt that mandated reporters will be able to properly fulfill their duty to report suspected child abuse or neglect. If an organization/school does not have a policy in place, it is strongly recommended that a mandated reporting policy be developed and reviewed annually.
To report suspected child abuse and neglect, call the statewide toll-free Child Abuse & Neglect Reporting Line at 1-833-958-3500. Reports of suspected child abuse or neglect may be made verbally or in writing. The state's reporting form, SFN 960, is also available at local human service zone offices.
Mandated reporting policies are secondary prevention because they address abuse after it has been perpetrated. It is important to note that professionals often are unsure about what counts as a disclosure, and when and how to make a report about suspected child abuse and neglect. It has been found that teachers were more likely to underreport than to over-report. (Webster, 2005) Understanding the signs of child abuse and knowing how to make a report are crucial for stopping all types of child abuse in North Dakota. Both training and education are key to stopping the cycle of abuse, please visit Mandated Reporters - Home Page (pcand.org) to learn how to spot the signs of abuse & neglect.
North Dakota Students & Safety Law
15.1-19-26. Prohibition on aiding and abetting sexual abuse.
1. The state educational agency, or local educational agency that receives federal funds under section 8546 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act [20 U.S.C. 7926] shall prohibit any individual who is a school employee, contractor, or agent, or any state educational agency or local educational agency, from assisting a school employee, contractor, or agent in obtaining a new job, apart from the routine transmission of administrative and personnel files, if the individual or agency knows there is confirmation, or there is an investigation underway based on a claim the school employee, contractor, or agent engaged in sexual misconduct regarding a minor or student in violation of law.
2. Subsection 1 does not apply if:
a. The information has been properly reported to a law enforcement agency with jurisdiction over the alleged misconduct and any other authorities as required by federal, state, or local law; and
b. (1) The matter has been officially closed or the prosecutor or police with jurisdiction over the alleged misconduct has investigated the allegations and notified school officials that there is insufficient information to establish probable cause that the school employee, contractor, or agent engaged in sexual misconduct regarding a minor or student in violation of the law; (2) The school employee, contractor, or agent has been charged with, and acquitted or otherwise exonerated of the alleged misconduct; or (3) The case or investigation remains open and there have been no charges filed against, or indictment of, the school employee, contractor, or agent within one year of the date on which the information was reported to a law enforcement agency.
15.1-19-27. Conviction of aiding and abetting sexual abuse - Penalty. Any individual who is a school district employee, contractor, or agent convicted of aiding and abetting sexual abuse as described in section 15.1-19-26 is guilty of a class B misdemeanor.
Currently, North Dakota has not passed legislation requiring or encouraging child sexual abuse prevention education in schools.
North Dakota Health Education Content Standards
The North Dakota Health Education Content Standards give educators, administrators, and parents information they need about what students should know, and be able to do, during each step of their educational journey in the school setting. Health education includes information about physical, mental health, exercise and nutrition, and disease and injury prevention. Comprehensive health education builds students' knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes about health, and motivates our young people to make positive choices that will maintain and improve their health. Below are the eight health standards.
Standard 1 Understand concepts related to human growth and development, health promotion, disease prevention.
Standard 2 Analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media, technology, and other factors on health behaviors.
Standard 3 Demonstrate the ability to access valid health information, products, and services.
Standard 4 Demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks.
Standard 5 Demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks.
Standard 6 Demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks.
Standard 7 Demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks.
Standard 8 Demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.
To view these standards in detail with specific benchmarks, please visit: NDHealthStandards2018
North Dakota Children’s Advocacy Center Information
A Children’s Advocacy Center is a victim-focused, community-orientated, safe facility in which members of a multidisciplinary team work together to provide a comprehensive coordinated and compassionate investigation and intervention of abuse allegations.
Children’s Advocacy Centers (CACs) operate on the important belief that the best interests of the child victim should be prioritized and protected as the case proceeds through the investigation and prosecution stages and beyond. CACs offer a child-friendly environment where child victims can feel safe to disclose.
The North Dakota CACs provide forensic interviews, medical evaluations, victim support/advocacy, and trauma counseling. North Dakota’s Children’s Advocacy Centers are located in Fargo, Grand Forks, Bismarck, Dickinson, Watford City, Standing Rock, Minot, Williston and Bottineau. The North Dakota CACs serve all 53 counties and 5 reservations in the state.
To learn more about North Dakota Children’s Advocacy Centers, please visit: https://www.cacnd.org
Dakota Children’s Advocacy Center
Northern Plains Children’s Advocacy Center
Red River Children’s Advocacy Center